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Superfluid helium


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What is a superfluid?


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Superfluidity is the characteristic property of a fluid with zero viscosity which therefore flows without loss of kinetic energy. When stirred, a superfluid forms cellular vortices that continue to rotate indefinitely. Superfluidity occurs in two isotopes of helium when they are liquified by cooling to cryogenic temperatures. It is also a property of various other exotic states of matter theorized to exist in astrophysics, high-energy physics, and theories of quantum gravity. The phenomenon is related to Bose–Einstein condensation, but neither is a specific type of the other: not all Bose-Einstein condensates can be regarded as superfluids, and not all superfluids are Bose–Einstein condensates. The theory of superfluidity was developed by Lev Landau.
    • Superfluidity of liquid helium 

    • Ultracold atomic gases 

    • Superfluids in astrophysics 

    • In high-energy physics and quantum gravity