Video encyclopedia

Imperial examination


科举 (kē jǔ) Ancient Imperial Examination


Imperial Exam


Imperial Examination World Civ. Project


imperial examination


China's earliest surviving imperial exam paper on display

Chinese imperial examinations were a civil service examination system in Imperial China to select candidates for the state bureaucracy. Although there were imperial exams as early as the Han dynasty, the system became widely utilized as the major path to office only in the mid-Tang dynasty, and remained so until its abolition in 1905. Since the exams were based on knowledge of the classics and literary style, not technical expertise, successful candidates were generalists who shared a common language and culture, one shared even by those who failed. This common culture helped to unify the empire and the ideal of achievement by merit gave legitimacy to imperial rule, while leaving clear problems resulting from a systemic lack of technical and practical expertise.
    • Other Chinese inventions 

    • General history 

    • Precursors 

    • History by dynasty 

    • Impact 

    • Taking the exams 

    • Post-examination appointments 

    • Institutions 

    • Organization 

    • Other examinations 

    • Culture 

    • Influence 

    • Examinations in modern China 

    • Bibliography