Video encyclopedia



Change of State: Melting, Freezing, Vaporization, ..., Ionization, and Recombination.


Melting, Freezing, Evaporation, Condensation, Sublimation


What Phase Changes Are Exothermic & Endothermic? : Such Great Physics


Enthalpy of Ionization


Gas Chromatography - Flame Ionization Detector Animation

Ionization or ionisation, is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions, often in conjunction with other chemical changes. Ionization can result from the loss of an electron after collisions with subatomic particles, collisions with other atoms, molecules and ions, or through the interaction with electromagnetic radiation. Heterolytic bond cleavage and heterolytic substitution reactions can result in the formation of ion pairs. Ionization can occur through radioactive decay by the internal conversion process, in which an excited nucleus transfers its energy to one of the inner-shell electrons causing it to be ejected.
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  • Types 

  • Uses 

  • Production of ions 

  • Ionization energy of atoms 

  • Semi-classical description of ionization 

  • Quantum mechanical description of ionization 

  • Strong field approximation for the ionization rate 

  • Kramers-Henneberger frame and ionization phase effects 

  • Dissociation – distinction