Danvers State Hospital photos found inside the Kirkbride in 2000
Kirkbride Building, Taunton State Hospital - Taunton, MA circa 2004
Worcester State Hospital
Kirkbride FAQ #3--What was the Kirkbride Building?
The Kirkbride Plan - Black Flowers (Music Video)
The Kirkbride Plan refers to a system of mental asylum design advocated by Philadelphia psychiatrist Thomas Story Kirkbride (1809–1883) in the mid-19th century. The asylums built in the Kirkbride design, often referred to as Kirkbride Buildings, were constructed from the mid-to-late-19th century in the United States. The structural features of the hospitals as designated by Dr. Kirkbride were contingent on his theories regarding the healing of the mentally ill, in which environment and exposure to natural light and air circulation were crucial. The hospitals built according to the Kirkbride Plan would adopt various architectural styles, but had in common the "bat wing" style floor plan, housing numerous wings that sprawl outward from the center.