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In mathematics, modular arithmetic is a system of arithmetic for integers, where numbers "wrap around" upon reaching a certain value—the modulus. The modern approach to modular arithmetic was developed by Carl Friedrich Gauss in his book Disquisitiones Arithmeticae, published in 1801.

### Congruence

## Integer

## Mathematics Divisor

## Congruence relation

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### Properties

### Congruence classes

### Residue systems

### Integers modulo ''n''

### Applications

### Computational complexity