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Proportional representation

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How proportional representation works

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First past the post vs. proportional representation

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Voting for Dummies - Proportional Representation System

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How to break the two-party hold on American politics

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Christopher Hitchens on Proportional Representation

Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems by which divisions into an electorate are reflected proportionately into the elected body. If n% of the electorate support a particular political party, then roughly n% of seats will be won by that party. The essence of such systems is that all votes contribute to the result: not just a plurality, or a bare majority, of them. The most prevalent forms of proportional representation all require the use of multiple-member voting districts, as it is not possible to fill a single seat in a proportional manner. In fact, the implementations of PR that achieve the highest levels of proportionality tend to include districts with large numbers of seats.
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  • Advantages and disadvantages 

  • Attributes of PR systems 

  • Measuring proportionality 

  • PR electoral systems 

  • History 

  • List of countries using proportional representation