Video encyclopedia


Physical phenomena

Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold. It is a proportional measure of the average kinetic energy of the random motions of the constituent particles of matter in a system. Temperature is important in all fields of natural science, including physics, chemistry, Earth science, medicine, and biology, as well as most aspects of daily life.


  • Effects 

  • Scales 

  • Thermodynamic approach 

  • Kinetic theory approach 

  • Basic theory 

  • Measurement 

  • Theoretical foundation 

  • Examples 

  • Notes and references