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1989 Tiananmen Square protests


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Tiananmen Square Massacre

The Tiananmen Square protests, known as the June Fourth Incident in China, were student-led demonstrations held in Tiananmen Square, Beijing during 1989. In what is known as the Tiananmen Square Massacre, troops armed with assault rifles and accompanied by tanks fired at the demonstrators and those trying to block the military's advance into Tiananmen Square. The protests started on 15 April and were forcibly suppressed on 4 June when the government declared martial law and sent the People's Liberation Army to occupy parts of central Beijing. Estimates of the death toll vary from several hundred to several thousand, with thousands more wounded. The popular national movement inspired by the Beijing protests is sometimes called the '89 Democracy Movement or the Tiananmen Square Incident.
  • Naming 

  • ''Boluan Fanzheng'' and economic reforms 

  • Challenges to Reforms and Opening-up 

  • Social disenfranchisement and legitimacy crisis 

  • 1986 student demonstrations 

  • Political reforms 

  • Death of Hu Yaobang 

  • Turning point: 26 April Editorial 

  • 27 April demonstrations 

  • Preparing for dialogue 

  • Hunger strikes begin 

  • Mikhail Gorbachev's visit 

  • Gathering momentum 

  • Outside Beijing 

  • Martial law 

  • 1–3 June 

  • 3–4 June 

  • Chang'an Avenue 

  • Protestors attack the PLA's troopers 

  • Clearing the square 

  • 5 June and the Tank Man 

  • Protests outside Beijing 

  • Government's pronouncements 

  • Official figures 

  • Other estimates 

  • Identifying the dead 

  • Deaths in Tiananmen Square itself 

  • Arrests, punishments, and evacuations 

  • Leadership changes 

  • Official narrative 

  • Chinese media 

  • Foreign media 

  • Politics 

  • Economy 

  • Hong Kong 

  • China's image internationally 

  • European Union and the United States arms embargo 

  • Censorship in China 

  • Calls for the government to reassess 

  • Chinese leaders voicing regret