NT Wright: Christus victor vs penal substitution atonement // Premier Christianity
3 Minute Theology 3.2: What is the Substitutionary Atonement?
What is the Atonement? - Christianity 101
What Does the Bible Mean by the Word "Atonement?"
In western Christian theology, atonement describes how human beings can be reconciled to God through Christ's sacrificial suffering and death. Atonement refers to the forgiving or pardoning of sin in general and original sin in particular through the suffering, death and resurrection of Jesus, enabling the reconciliation between God and his creation. Within Christianity there are, historically, three or four main theories for how such atonement might work:Ransom theory of atonement/Christus Victor ;
Satisfaction theory of atonement developed by Anselm of Canterbury ;
Moral influence theory of atonement, developed by the Enlightenment, which Aulén called the "subjective" or "humanistic" view and considered to have been anticipated—as a critique of the satisfaction view—by Peter Abelard.
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