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Notocitellus is a genus of ground squirrels, containing two species. These species are the tropical ground squirrel, and the ring-tailed ground squirrel (N. annulatus). Notocitellus was formerly placed in the large ground squirrel genus Spermophilus, as a subgenus or species group. Since DNA sequencing of the cytochrome b gene has shown Spermophilus to be paraphyletic to the marmots, antelope squirrels, and prairie dogs, it is now separated, along with six other genera. The exact relations of this genus are unclear, though a relation to the antelope squirrels is possible.
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