Video encyclopedia

Ayyubid dynasty


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Ayyubid Dynasty


Salahuddin Ayyubi | Legends of War

The Ayyubid dynasty was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin founded by Saladin and centred in Egypt. The dynasty ruled large parts of the Middle East during the 12th and 13th centuries. Saladin had risen to vizier of Fatimid Egypt in 1169, before abolishing the Fatimids in 1171. Three years later, he was proclaimed sultan following the death of his former master, the Zengid ruler Nur al-Din. For the next decade, the Ayyubids launched conquests throughout the region and by 1183, it encompassed Egypt, Syria and Upper Mesopotamia, including much of the Kurdish region, the Hejaz, Yemen and the North African coast up to the borders of modern-day Tunisia. Most of the Crusader states including the Kingdom of Jerusalem fell to Saladin after his victory at the Battle of Hattin in 1187. However, the Crusaders regained control of Palestine's coastline in the 1190s.
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  • Country facts 

  • Origins 

  • Establishment in Egypt 

  • Conquest of North Africa and Nubia 

  • Conquest of Arabia 

  • Conquest of Syria and Mesopotamia 

  • Conquest of Palestine and Transjordan 

  • Third Crusade 

  • Quarrels over the sultanate 

  • Loss of territories and ceding of Jerusalem 

  • Syro-Egyptian divide 

  • Restoration of unity 

  • Rise of the Mamluks and fall of Egypt 

  • Dominance of Aleppo 

  • Karak asserts independence 

  • Mongol invasion and fall of the empire 

  • Remnants of the dynasty 

  • Structure 

  • Religion, ethnicity and language 

  • Population 

  • Economy 

  • Education 

  • Science and medicine 

  • Architecture