Creating Oxygen from Carbon and Helium in a tandem accelerator
Conventionally, positively charged ions are accelerated because this is the polarity of the atomic nucleus. However, if one wants to use the same static electric potential twice to accelerate ions, then the polarity of the ions' charge must change from anions to cations or vice versa while they are inside the conductor where they will feel no electric force. It turns out to be simple to remove, or strip, electrons from an energetic ion. One of the properties of ion-interaction with matter is the exchange of electrons, which is a way the ion can lose energy by depositing it within the matter. However, as the target becomes thinner or the projectile becomes more energetic, the amount of energy deposited in the conductor foil becomes less and less.
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