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Tunnel ionization

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Rydberg state creation by tunnel ionization

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Three Steps Model: Tunnel Ionization

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Frustrated tunnelling ionization during strong-field fragmentation of D3+

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FULL MEASURE: December 8, 2019 - Smuggling Tunnels

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General phenomenology of ionization from aligned molecular ensembles

Tunnel ionization is a process in which electrons in an atom pass through the potential barrier and escape from the atom. In an intense electric field, the potential barrier of an atom (molecule) is distorted drastically. Therefore, the length of the barrier that electrons have to pass decreases and electrons can escape from the atom's potential more easily. Tunneling Ionization is a quantum mechanical phenomenon, since in the classical picture an electron does not have sufficient energy to overcome the potential barrier of the atom.
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    • DC tunneling ionization