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17/03/1905 Albert Einstein proposes the existence of photon

In 1905 physicists knew, that electromagnetic energy is made of some small chunks called quanta. Einstein suggested that these quanta are actually the particles of light, photons. These particles, however, exhibit many properties of waves. This strange behavior of matter is called the wave-particle duality.


  • Essentials 

  • Nomenclature 

  • Physical properties 

  • Historical development 

  • Early objections 

  • Wave–particle duality and uncertainty principles 

  • Bose–Einstein model of a photon gas 

  • Stimulated and spontaneous emission 

  • Second quantization and high energy photon interactions 

  • The hadronic properties of the photon 

  • The photon as a gauge boson 

  • Contributions to the mass of a system 

  • Photons in matter 

  • Technological applications 

  • Recent research