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British Raj


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The British Raj was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947. The rule is also called Crown rule in India, or direct rule in India. The region under British control was commonly called British India or simply India in contemporaneous usage, and included areas directly administered by the United Kingdom, which were collectively called British India, and those ruled by indigenous rulers, but under British tutelage or paramountcy, and called the princely states. The de facto political amalgamation was also called the Indian Empire and after 1876 issued passports under that name. As India, it was a founding member of the League of Nations, a participating nation in the Summer Olympics in 1900, 1920, 1928, 1932, and 1936, and a founding member of the United Nations in San Francisco in 1945.
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  • Country facts 

  • Geographical extent 

  • British India and the Princely States 

  • Princely states 

  • Organisation 

  • Aftermath of the Rebellion of 1857: Indian critiques, British response 

  • Demographic history 

  • Legal modernisation 

  • Education 

  • Missionary work 

  • Industry 

  • Railways 

  • Irrigation 

  • Policies 

  • Economic impact 

  • Famines, epidemics, public health 

  • 1860s–1890s: New middle class, Indian National Congress 

  • 1870s–1907: Social reformers, moderates vs. extremists 

  • Partition of Bengal (1905–1911) 

  • 1906–1909: Muslim League, Minto-Morley reforms 

  • 1914–1918: First World War, Lucknow Pact 

  • 1917–1919: ''Satyagraha'', Montagu-Chelmsford reforms, Jallianwalla Bagh 

  • 1920s: Non-cooperation, ''Khilafat'', Simon Commission, Jinnah's fourteen points 

  • 1929–1937: Round Table conferences, Government of India Act 

  • 1938–1941: World War II, Muslim League's Lahore Resolution 

  • 1942–1945: Cripps mission, Quit India Resolution, INA 

  • 1946: Elections, Cabinet mission, Direct Action Day 

  • 1947: Planning for partition 

  • 1947: Violence, partition, independence 

  • Ideological impact 

  • Surveys