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Byzantine Empire


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The Differences Between The Roman Empire and The Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe. Both "Byzantine Empire" and "Eastern Roman Empire" are historiographical terms created after the end of the realm; its citizens continued to refer to their empire as the Roman Empire, or Romania (Ῥωμανία), and to themselves as "Romans."
  • Nomenclature 

  • Early history 

  • Christianization and partition of the Empire 

  • Loss of the Western Roman Empire 

  • Justinian dynasty 

  • Early Heraclian dynasty 

  • First Arab Siege of Constantinople (674–678) and the theme system 

  • Late Heraclian dynasty 

  • Second Arab Siege of Constantinople (717–718) and the Isaurian dynasty 

  • Religious dispute over iconoclasm 

  • Macedonian dynasty and resurgence (867–1025) 

  • Wars against the Abbasids 

  • Wars against the Bulgarian Empire 

  • Relations with the Kievan Rus' 

  • Campaigns in the Caucasus 

  • Apex 

  • Split between Orthodoxy and Catholicism (1054) 

  • Crisis and fragmentation 

  • Komnenian dynasty and the Crusades 

  • Alexios I and the First Crusade 

  • John II, Manuel I and the Second Crusade 

  • 12th-century Renaissance 

  • Angelid dynasty 

  • Fourth Crusade 

  • Crusader sack of Constantinople (1204) 

  • Empire in exile 

  • Reconquest of Constantinople 

  • Rise of the Ottomans and fall of Constantinople 

  • Political aftermath 

  • Government and bureaucracy 

  • Diplomacy 

  • Science, medicine and law 

  • Religion 

  • Art and literature 

  • Music 

  • Cuisine 

  • Flags and insignia 

  • Language 

  • Recreation 

  • Economy 

  • Legacy 

  • Byzantine studies, resources and bibliography