The AK-47, or AK as it is officially known, also known as the Kalashnikov, is a gas-operated, 7.62×39mm assault rifle, developed in the Soviet Union by Mikhail Kalashnikov. It is the originating firearm of the Kalashnikov rifle family.
The Heckler & Koch HK416 is an assault rifle designed and manufactured by Heckler & Koch. Although its design is in large part based on the AR-15 class of weapons, specifically the Colt M4 carbine family issued to the U.S. military, it uses an HK-proprietary short-stroke gas piston system originally derived from the ArmaLite AR-18. It is the standard assault rifle of the French Armed Forces and Norwegian Armed Forces, and was the weapon used by SEAL Team Six to kill Osama Bin Laden in 2011.
The FN SCAR is a gas-operated self-loading rifle with a rotating bolt. It is constructed to be extremely modular, including barrel change to switch between calibers. The rifle was developed by Belgian manufacturer FN Herstal (FNH) for the United States Special Operations Command (SOCOM) to satisfy the requirements of the SCAR competition. This family of rifles consist of two main types. The SCAR-L, for "light", is chambered in 5.56×45mm NATO cartridge and the SCAR-H, for "heavy", is chambered in 7.62×51mm NATO. Both are available in Close Quarters Combat (CQC), Standard (STD) and Long Barrel (LB) variants.
The AK-12 is a Russian 5.45×39mm assault rifle, designed and manufactured by Kalashnikov Concern. It is the newest derivative of the Russian AK-Pattern series of assault rifles. The rifle is intended to eventually replace previous generations of Kalashnikov 5.45×39mm assault rifles in service within the Russian military and other governmental forces. Kalashnikov also offers the AK-12 in 7.62×39mm cartridge, designated as the AK-15.
The ASh-12.7 battle rifle is a dedicated CQB/Urban Operations weapon, developed by TsKIB SOO, a subsidiary of the KBP Instrument Design Bureau of Tula, Russia, by request from the Russian FSB. The weapon was designed with extreme short-range stopping power in mind because it is intended for special units of the FSB which operate in urban environments against heavily armed and organized gangsters and terrorists who need to be killed in one shot. According to the Russian press, the first batch of ASh-12.7 assault rifles was delivered to the FSB in late 2011.
The SA80 is a British family of 5.56×45mm NATO small arms, all of which are selective fire, gas-operated assault rifles. The L85 rifle variant of the SA80 family has been the standard issue service rifle of the British Armed Forces since 1987, replacing the L1A1 variant of the FN FAL. The first prototypes were created in 1976, with production ending in 1994. The A1 variant was significantly upgraded in the early 2000s by Heckler & Koch as the SA80A2 and remains in service as of 2018. The A3 variant was first issued in 2018 with several new improvements.
The G36 is a 5.56×45mm assault rifle, designed in the early 1990s by Heckler & Koch in Germany as a replacement for the heavier 7.62mm G3 battle rifle. It was accepted into service with the Bundeswehr in 1997, replacing the G3. The G36 is gas-operated and feeds from a 30-round detachable box magazine or 100-round C-Mag drum magazine.
The FAMAS is a bullpup-styled assault rifle designed and manufactured in France by MAS located in Saint-Étienne, which is now a member of the French government-owned Nexter group. It is being replaced as the service rifle of the French military by the HK416F. It is known by French troops as "Le Clairon"(The Bugle) due to its distinctive shape. The FAMAS is recognized for its high rate of fire at 1200 rounds per minute.