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Injuries

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Barbiturate overdose

Barbiturate overdose is poisoning due to excessive doses of barbiturates. Symptoms typically include difficulty thinking, poor coordination, decreased level of consciousness, and a decreased effort to breathe. Complications of overdose can include noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. If death occurs this is typically due to a lack of breathing.

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Hematoma

A hematoma or haematoma is a localized collection of blood outside the blood vessels, due to either disease or trauma including injury or surgery and may involve blood continuing to seep from broken capillaries. A hematoma is initially in liquid form spread among the tissues including in sacs between tissues where it may coagulate and solidify before blood is reabsorbed into blood vessels. An ecchymosis is a hematoma of the skin larger than 10mm.

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Cyanide poisoning

Cyanide poisoning is poisoning that results from exposure to a number of forms of cyanide. Early symptoms include headache, dizziness, fast heart rate, shortness of breath, and vomiting. This may then be followed by seizures, slow heart rate, low blood pressure, loss of consciousness, and cardiac arrest. Onset of symptoms is usually within a few minutes. If a person survives, there may be long-term neurological problems.

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Gunshot wound

A gunshot wound (GSW), also known as ballistic trauma, is a form of physical trauma sustained from the discharge of arms or munitions. The most common forms of ballistic trauma stem from firearms used in armed conflicts, civilian sporting, recreational pursuits and criminal activity. Damage is dependent on the firearm, bullet, velocity, entry point, and trajectory. Management can range from observation and local wound care to urgent surgical intervention.

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Decapitation

Decapitation is the complete separation of the head from the body. Such an injury is fatal to humans and most animals, since it deprives all other organs of the involuntary functions that are needed for the body to function, while the brain is deprived of oxygenated blood and blood pressure.

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Self-harm

Self-harm, also known as self-injury, is defined as the intentional, direct injuring of body tissue, done without suicidal intentions. Other terms such as cutting and self-mutilation have been used for any self-harming behavior regardless of suicidal intent. The most common form of self-harm is using a sharp object to cut one's skin. Other forms include behaviour such as burning, scratching, or hitting body parts. While older definitions included behaviour such as interfering with wound healing, excessive skin picking (dermatillomania), hair pulling (trichotillomania) and the ingestion of toxic substances or objects as self-harm, in current terminology those are differentiated from the term self-harm.

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Drug overdose

The term drug overdose describes the ingestion or application of a drug or other substance in quantities greater than are recommended or generally practiced. An overdose may result in a toxic state or death.

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Water intoxication

Water intoxication, also known as water poisoning, hyperhydration, or water toxemia is a potentially fatal disturbance in brain functions that results when the normal balance of electrolytes in the body is pushed outside safe limits by overhydration.

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Burn

A burn is a type of injury to skin, or other tissues, caused by heat, cold, electricity, chemicals, friction, or radiation. Most burns are due to heat from hot liquids, solids, or fire. While rates are similar for males and females the underlying causes often differ. Among women in some areas, risk is related to use of open cooking fires or unsafe cook stoves. Among men, risk is related to the work environments. Alcoholism and smoking are other risk factors. Burns can also occur as a result of self harm or violence between people.

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Drowning

Drowning is defined as respiratory impairment as a result of being in or under a liquid. Drowning typically occurs silently, with only a few people able to wave their hands or call for help. After rescue symptoms may include breathing problems, vomiting, confusion, or unconsciousness. Occasionally symptoms may not appear until up to six hours afterwards. Drowning may be complicated by low body temperature, aspiration of vomit, or acute respiratory distress syndrome.

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Stigmata

Stigmata is a term used in Christian Mysticism to describe the manifestations of bodily wounds, scars and pain in locations corresponding to the crucifixion wounds of Jesus Christ, such as the hands, wrists, and feet. An individual bearing the wounds of stigmata is referred to as a Stigmatist or a Stigmatic.

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Callus

A callus is an area of thickened skin that forms as a response to repeated friction, pressure, or other irritation. Since repeated contact is required, calluses are most often found on feet because of frequent walking and incorrectly fitting footwear. While they can be perceived as being unsightly, calluses are generally not harmful, but if neglected for long periods may sometimes lead to other problems, such as a skin ulceration or infection, or cause the sufferer to try and offload the affected painful area, which can place excessive stress on the asymptomatic side. Rubbing that is too frequent or forceful will cause blisters as opposed to calluses to form.

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Poisoning of Sergei and Yulia Skripal

On 4 March 2018, Sergei Skripal, a former Russian military officer and double agent for the UK's intelligence services, and his daughter Yulia Skripal were poisoned in Salisbury, England, with a Novichok nerve agent known as A-234, according to official UK sources and the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW). After three weeks in a critical condition, Yulia regained consciousness and was able to speak. She was discharged on 9 April 2018. Sergei was also in a critical condition until he regained consciousness one month after the attack. He was discharged from hospital on 18 May 2018.

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Oxygen toxicity

Oxygen toxicity is a condition resulting from the harmful effects of breathing molecular oxygen at increased partial pressures. It is also known as oxygen toxicity syndrome, oxygen intoxication, and oxygen poisoning. Historically, the central nervous system condition was called the Paul Bert effect, and the pulmonary condition the Lorrain Smith effect, after the researchers who pioneered its discovery and description in the late 19th century. Severe cases can result in cell damage and death, with effects most often seen in the central nervous system, lungs and eyes. Oxygen toxicity is a concern for underwater divers, those on high concentrations of supplemental oxygen, and those undergoing hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

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Poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko

Alexander Litvinenko was a former officer of the Russian Federal Security Service (FSB) and KGB, who fled from court prosecution in Russia and received political asylum in the United Kingdom.