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Military physicians

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Wars and warfare

Josef Mengele

Josef Mengele was a German Schutzstaffel (SS) officer and physician in Auschwitz concentration camp during World War II. He performed deadly human experiments on prisoners and was a member of the team of doctors who selected victims to be killed in the gas chambers. Arrivals deemed able to work were admitted into the camp, and those deemed unfit for labor were immediately killed in the gas chambers. With Red Army troops sweeping through Poland, Mengele was transferred 280 kilometres (170 mi) from Auschwitz to the Gross-Rosen concentration camp on 17 January 1945, just 10 days before the arrival of the Soviet forces at Auschwitz. After the war, he fled to South America where he evaded capture for the rest of his life.

 
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Wars and warfare

Jeffrey R. MacDonald

Jeffrey Robert MacDonald is a former American physician and United States Army Officer who was convicted in 1979 of murdering his pregnant wife and two daughters in February 1970.

 
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Wars and warfare, Health

Russell M. Nelson

Russell Marion Nelson Sr. is an American religious leader and former surgeon who is the 17th and current president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Nelson was a member of the LDS Church's Quorum of the Twelve Apostles for nearly 34 years, and was the quorum president from 2015 to 2018. As church president, Nelson is accepted by the church as a prophet, seer, and revelator.

 
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Politics, Wars and warfare, Health

Ralph Northam

Ralph Shearer Northam is an American politician and physician serving as the 73rd and current Governor of Virginia since January 13, 2018. A physician by occupation, he was a member of the Medical Corps from 1984 to 1992. Northam served as the 40th Lieutenant Governor of Virginia from 2014 to 2018 prior to winning the governorship against Republican nominee Ed Gillespie in the 2017 election.

 
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Wars and warfare, Health

James Barry (surgeon)

Dr. James Miranda Steuart Barry was a military surgeon in the British Army, born in Ireland. Barry obtained a medical degree from the University of Edinburgh Medical School, then served first in Cape Town, South Africa and subsequently in many parts of the British Empire. Before retirement, Barry had risen to the rank of Inspector General in charge of military hospitals, the second highest medical office in the British Army. Barry not only improved conditions for wounded soldiers, but also the conditions of the native inhabitants, and performed the first caesarean section in Africa by an Irish surgeon in which both the mother and child survived the operation.

 
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Sports, Wars and warfare, Health

Aribert Heim

Aribert Ferdinand Heim was an Austrian SS doctor, also known as "Dr Death". During World War II he served at the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp in Mauthausen, killing and torturing inmates by various methods, such as direct injections of toxic compounds into the hearts of his victims.

 
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Wars and warfare, Health

R. D. Laing

Ronald David Laing, usually cited as R. D. Laing, was a Scottish psychiatrist who wrote extensively on mental illness – in particular, the experience of psychosis. Laing's views on the causes and treatment of psychopathological phenomena were influenced by his study of existential philosophy and ran counter to the chemical and electroshock methods that had become psychiatric orthodoxy. Taking the expressed feelings of the individual patient or client as valid descriptions of lived experience rather than simply as symptoms of mental illness, Laing regarded schizophrenia as a theory not a fact. Though associated in the public mind with anti-psychiatry he rejected the label. Politically, he was regarded as a thinker of the New Left. Laing was portrayed in the 2017 film Mad to Be Normal.

 
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Wars and warfare, Health

Herta Oberheuser

Herta Oberheuser was a Nazi physician and a war criminal who worked at the Auschwitz and Ravensbrück concentration camps from 1940 until 1943.

 
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Politics, Wars and warfare, Health

Joseph Warren

Dr. Joseph Warren was an American physician who played a leading role in American Patriot organizations in Boston in the early days of the American Revolution, eventually serving as President of the revolutionary Massachusetts Provincial Congress. Warren enlisted Paul Revere and William Dawes on April 18, 1775, to leave Boston and spread the alarm that the British garrison in Boston was setting out to raid the town of Concord and arrest rebel leaders John Hancock and Samuel Adams. Warren participated in the next day's Battles of Lexington and Concord, which are commonly considered to be the opening engagements of the American Revolutionary War.

 
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Wars and warfare

Eduard Wirths

Eduard Wirths was the Chief SS doctor (SS-Standortarzt) at the Auschwitz concentration camp from September 1942 to January 1945. Thus, Wirths had formal responsibility for everything undertaken by the nearly 20 SS doctors who worked in the medical sections of Auschwitz between 1942–1945.

 
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Science, Wars and warfare, Health

John Hunter (surgeon)

John Hunter was a Scottish surgeon, one of the most distinguished scientists and surgeons of his day, and a grave-robber. He was an early advocate of careful observation and scientific method in medicine. He was a teacher of, and collaborator with, Edward Jenner, pioneer of the smallpox vaccine.He also stole Charles Byrne's body and proceeded to study and exhibit it against the deceased's explicit wishes. His wife, Anne Hunter, was a poet, some of whose poems were set to music by Joseph Haydn.

 
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Science, Wars and warfare, Health

Johann Christian Reil

Johann Christian Reil was a German physician, physiologist, anatomist, and psychiatrist. He coined the term psychiatry – Psychiatrie in German – in 1808.

 
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Ekkehard von Kuenssberg

Ekkehard Ulrich Gustav von Kuenssberg was a Scottish physician of German origin. A founder and president of the Royal College of General Practitioners, he was the co-signatory of a letter to the British Medical Journal from GPs who had spotted early signs of the effects of thalidomide.

 
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Wars and warfare

Walter Reed

Major Walter Reed, M.D., U.S. Army, was a U.S. Army physician who in 1901 led the team that postulated and confirmed the theory that yellow fever is transmitted by a particular mosquito species, rather than by direct contact. This insight gave impetus to the new fields of epidemiology and biomedicine, and most immediately allowed the resumption and completion of work on the Panama Canal (1904–1914) by the United States. Reed followed work started by Carlos Finlay and directed by George Miller Sternberg who has been called the "first U.S. bacteriologist".

 
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Politics, Wars and warfare

Bertrand Dawson, 1st Viscount Dawson of Penn

Bertrand Edward Dawson, 1st Viscount Dawson of Penn, was a physician to the British Royal Family and President of the Royal College of Physicians from 1931 to 1937.