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Cryptocurrencies

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Business and economy

Bitcoin

Bitcoin (₿) is a cryptocurrency, a form of electronic cash. It is a decentralized digital currency without a central bank or single administrator. Bitcoins can be sent from user to user on the peer-to-peer bitcoin network directly, without the need for intermediaries. Transactions are verified by network nodes through cryptography and recorded in a public distributed ledger called a blockchain. Bitcoin was invented by an unknown person or group of people using the name Satoshi Nakamoto and released as open-source software in 2009. Bitcoins are created as a reward for a process known as mining. They can be exchanged for other currencies, products, and services. Research produced by the University of Cambridge estimates that in 2017, there were 2.9 to 5.8 million unique users using a cryptocurrency wallet, most of them using bitcoin.

 
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Business and economy

Cryptocurrency

A cryptocurrency is a digital asset designed to work as a medium of exchange that uses strong cryptography to secure financial transactions, control the creation of additional units, and verify the transfer of assets. Cryptocurrencies are a kind of digital currency, virtual currency or alternative currency. Cryptocurrencies use decentralized control as opposed to centralized electronic money and central banking systems. The decentralized control of each cryptocurrency works through distributed ledger technology, typically a blockchain, that serves as a public financial transaction database.

 
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Business and economy

Ethereum

Ethereum is an open-source, public, blockchain-based distributed computing platform and operating system featuring smart contract (scripting) functionality. It supports a modified version of Nakamoto consensus via transaction-based state transitions.

 
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Business and economy

Ripple (payment protocol)

Ripple is a real-time gross settlement system, currency exchange and remittance network created by Ripple Labs Inc., a US based technology company. Also called the XRP Ledger, Ripple is built upon a distributed open source internet protocol, consensus ledger and the decentralized native cryptocurrency known as XRP. Released in 2012, Ripple purports to enable "secure, instantly and nearly free global financial transactions of any size with no chargebacks." It supports tokens representing fiat currency, cryptocurrency, commodity or any other unit of value such as frequent flier miles or mobile minutes. At its core, Ripple is based around a shared public ledger, which uses a consensus process that allows for payments, exchanges and remittance in a distributed process.

 
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Business and economy

Bitcoin Cash

Bitcoin Cash is a cryptocurrency. In mid-2017, a group of developers wanting to increase bitcoin's block size limit prepared a code change. The change, called a hard fork, took effect on 1 August 2017. As a result, the bitcoin ledger called the blockchain and the cryptocurrency split in two. At the time of the fork anyone owning bitcoin was also in possession of the same number of Bitcoin Cash units.

 
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Business and economy

Dogecoin

Dogecoin is a cryptocurrency featuring a likeness of the Shiba Inu dog from the "Doge" Internet meme as its logo. Introduced as a "joke currency" on 6 December 2013, Dogecoin quickly developed its own online community and reached a capitalization of US$60 million in January 2014.

 
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Business and economy

Monero (cryptocurrency)

Monero (XMR) is an open-source cryptocurrency created in April 2014 that focuses on fungibility and decentralization. Monero uses an obfuscated public ledger, meaning anybody can broadcast or send transactions, but no outside observer can tell the source, amount or destination. Monero uses a Proof of Work mechanism to issue new coins and incentivize miners to secure the network and validate transactions.

 
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Business and economy

Bitconnect

BitConnect (BCC) was an open-source cryptocurrency which has been described as a high-yield investment program and as a Ponzi scheme.

 
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Business and economy

Tether (cryptocurrency)

Tether is a stablecoin cryptocurrency. Tether tokens are issued by Tether Limited, which claims that each token issued is backed by one United States dollar. However, Tether Limited has not substantiated this claim through a promised audit of their currency reserves.

 
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Business and economy

Litecoin

Litecoin is a peer-to-peer cryptocurrency and open source software project released under the MIT/X11 license. Creation and transfer of coins is based on an open source cryptographic protocol and is not managed by any central authority. Litecoin was an early bitcoin spinoff or altcoin, starting in October 2011. In technical details, litecoin is nearly identical to Bitcoin.

 
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Business and economy

EOS.IO

EOS.IO is a blockchain protocol powered by the native cryptocurrency EOS. The protocol emulates most of the attributes of a real computer including hardware with the computing resources distributed equally among EOS cryptocurrency holders. EOSIO operates as a smart contract platform and decentralized operating system intended for the deployment of industrial-scale decentralized applications through a decentralized autonomous corporation model. The smart contract platform claims to eliminate transaction fees and also conduct millions of transactions per second.

 
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Business and economy

Petro (cryptocurrency)

The petro, or petromoneda, launched in February 2018, is a cryptocurrency scheme developed by the government of Venezuela. As of August 2018 it does not appear to function as a currency.

 
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Business and economy, Technology and industry

Stellar (payment network)

Stellar is an open-source, decentralized protocol for digital currency to fiat currency transfers which allows cross-border transactions between any pair of currencies. The Stellar protocol is supported by a nonprofit, the Stellar Development Foundation. The Stellar network has been used by companies such as IBM, KlickEx, Deloitte, Parkway Projects, Tempo, Wanxiang Labs and Stripe.

 
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Business and economy

Dash (cryptocurrency)

Dash is an open source peer-to-peer cryptocurrency and the first decentralized autonomous organization (DAO). It features instant transactions, private transactions and a self-funded, self-governed organizational structure. Dash is a fork of the Bitcoin software and is referred to as an altcoin.

 
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Business and economy

Cardano (platform)

Cardano is a distributed computing platform that runs the blockchain for the Ada cryptocurrency. Daedalus was the first cryptocurrency wallet that holds Ada and allowed transfers to other wallet addresses, but there are more to choose from now.