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Prisons

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Architecture

Xinjiang re-education camps

Vocational Education and Training Centers, commonly known as re-education camps, are internment camps that have been operated by the People's Republic of China Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Regional government for the purpose of interning Uyghur Muslims since 2014. They have significantly intensified since a hardline party secretary, Chen Quanguo, took charge of the region in August 2016. These camps are reportedly operated outside of the legal system; many Uyghurs have been interned without trial and no charges have been levied against them. Local authorities are reportedly holding hundreds of thousands of Uyghurs and Muslims from other ethnic minorities in these camps, for the stated purpose of countering extremism and terrorism.

Architecture

ADX Florence

The United States Penitentiary, Administrative Maximum Facility is an American federal prison that provides a higher level of custody than a maximum security prison. It is classed as a supermax or "control unit" prison, where the safety of inmates and staff is paramount. It is located in unincorporated Fremont County, Colorado, near Florence, and opened in 1994, and it is informally known as the "Alcatraz of the Rockies".

Architecture

Dachau concentration camp

Dachau concentration camp was the first of the Nazi concentration camps opened in Germany, intended to hold political prisoners. It is located on the grounds of an abandoned munitions factory northeast of the medieval town of Dachau, about 16 km (10 mi) northwest of Munich in the state of Bavaria, in southern Germany. Opened in 1933 by Heinrich Himmler, its purpose was enlarged to include forced labor, and eventually, the imprisonment of Jews, German and Austrian criminals, and eventually foreign nationals from countries that Germany occupied or invaded. The Dachau camp system grew to include nearly 100 sub-camps, which were mostly work camps or Arbeitskommandos, and were located throughout southern Germany and Austria. The camps were liberated by U.S. forces on 29 April 1945.

Architecture

Incarceration in the United States

Incarceration in the United States is one of the main forms of punishment and rehabilitation for the commission of felony and other offenses. The United States has the largest prison population in the world, and the highest per-capita incarceration rate. In 2016 in the US, there were 655 people incarcerated per 100,000 population. This is the US incarceration rate for adults or people tried as adults.

Architecture

Tihar Jail

Tihar Prisons, also called Tihar Jail and Tihar Ashram, is a prison complex in India and the largest complex of prisons in South Asia. Run by Department of Delhi Prisons, Government of Delhi, the prison contains nine central prisons, and is one of the two prison complexes in Delhi, along with a district prison at Rohini Prison Complex. It is located in Tihar village, approximately 3 km from JanakPuri, to the west of New Delhi, India. The surrounding area is called Hari Nagar.

Architecture

Chełmno extermination camp

Chełmno extermination camp, built during World War II, was the first of the Nazi German extermination camps and was situated 50 kilometres north of the metropolitan city of Łódź, near the village of Chełmno nad Nerem. Following the invasion of Poland in 1939 Germany annexed the area into the new territory of Reichsgau Wartheland, aiming at its complete "Germanization"; the camp was set up specifically to carry out ethnic cleansing through mass killings. It operated from December 8, 1941 parallel to Operation Reinhard during the most deadly phase of the Holocaust, and again from June 23, 1944 to January 18, 1945 during the Soviet counter-offensive. Polish Jews of the Łódź Ghetto and the local inhabitants of Reichsgau Wartheland (Warthegau) were exterminated there. In 1943 modifications were made to the camp's killing methods because the reception building was already dismantled.

Architecture

San Quentin State Prison

San Quentin State Prison (SQ) is a California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation state prison for men, located north of San Francisco in the unincorporated town of San Quentin in Marin County.

Architecture

Supermax prison

A super-maximum security (supermax) or administrative maximum (ADX) prison is a "control-unit" prison, or a unit within prisons, which represent the most secure levels of custody in the prison systems of certain countries. This is often the most secure form of security within a certain prison system. The objective is to provide long-term, segregated housing for inmates classified as the highest security risks in the prison system—the "worst of the worst" criminals—and those who pose an extremely serious threat to both national and global security.

Architecture

Panopticon

The Panopticon is a type of institutional building and a system of control designed by the English philosopher and social theorist Jeremy Bentham in the late 18th century. The scheme of the design is to allow all (pan-) inmates of an institution to be observed (-opticon) by a single watchman without the inmates being able to tell whether or not they are being watched. Although it is physically impossible for the single watchman to observe all the inmates' cells at once, the fact that the inmates cannot know when they are being watched means that they are motivated to act as though they are being watched at all times. Thus, they are effectively compelled to regulate their own behaviour. The name may also allude to the many-eyed giant Panoptes in Greek mythology, some of whose eyes were always awake, making him a highly effective watchman.

Architecture

Federal Correctional Complex, Butner

The Federal Correctional Complex, Butner is a United States federal prison complex for men in Butner, North Carolina. It is operated by the Federal Bureau of Prisons, a division of the United States Department of Justice. FCC Butner is about 25 miles (40 km) northwest of Raleigh, the state capital. It includes the Bureau's largest medical complex, which operates a drug treatment program and specializes in oncology and behavioral science. Among its inmates is Bernie Madoff, who was convicted for perpetrating the largest Ponzi scheme in history.

Architecture

Sobibór extermination camp

Sobibor was a Nazi German extermination camp built and operated by the SS as part of Operation Reinhard. It was located in the forest next to the railway station of Sobibór within the semi-colonial territory of General Government in occupied Poland.

Architecture, Traveling

Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary

The Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary or United States Penitentiary, Alcatraz Island was a maximum high-security federal prison on Alcatraz Island, 1.25 miles (2.01 km) off the coast of San Francisco, California, which operated from August 11, 1934, until March 21, 1963.

Architecture

Bergen-Belsen concentration camp

Bergen-Belsen [ˈbɛʁɡn̩.bɛlsn̩], or Belsen, was a Nazi concentration camp in what is today Lower Saxony in northern Germany, southwest of the town of Bergen near Celle. Originally established as a prisoner of war camp, in 1943, parts of it became a concentration camp. Initially this was an "exchange camp", where Jewish hostages were held with the intention of exchanging them for German prisoners of war held overseas. The camp was later expanded to accommodate Jews from other concentration camps.

Architecture

Sing Sing

Sing Sing Correctional Facility is a maximum security prison operated by the New York State Department of Corrections and Community Supervision in the village of Ossining, in the U.S. state of New York. It is located about 30 miles (48 km) north of New York City on the east bank of the Hudson River.

Architecture

Stalag Luft III

Stalag Luft III was a Luftwaffe-run prisoner of war (POW) camp during World War II, which held captured Western Allied air force personnel.