Jessye Norman was an American opera singer and recitalist. A dramatic soprano, Norman sang a broad repertoire and avoided being limited to one kind of fach. She famously stated "pigeonholes are for pigeons”, and that she was "attracted to the unusual". A towering figure on operatic, concert, and recital stages, she was associated with roles including Bartók's Judith, Beethoven's Leonore, Berlioz's Cassandre and Didon, Bizet's Carmen, Gluck's Alceste, Janácek's Emilia Marty, Mozart's Countess Almaviva, Poulenc's Madame Lidoine, Purcell's Dido, Strauss's Ariadne, Stravinsky's Jocasta, Verdi's Aida, and Wagner's Sieglinde, Kundry, and Elisabeth. The New York Times music critic Edward Rothstein described her voice as a "grand mansion of sound”, and wrote that “it has enormous dimensions, reaching backward and upward. It opens onto unexpected vistas. It contains sunlit rooms, narrow passageways, cavernous halls. Ms. Norman is the regal mistress of this domain, with a physical presence suited to her vocal expanse."