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Flashback calendar

American physicist George Stibitz dies

He is recognized as one of the fathers of the modern first digital computer. Stibitz was known for his work in the 1930s and 1940s on the realization of Boolean logic digital circuits using electromechanical relays as the switching element. In Boolean logic the values of the variables are just true or false.

Arabian oryx is reintroduced to the wild

The Arabian oryx is a medium-sized antelope with a distinct shoulder bump, long, straight horns, and a tufted tail. It was extinct in the wild as of 1972. Initial reintroduction was primarily from two herds: the Phoenix Zoo herd and herd of Saudi National Wildlife Research Center. Current populations of the species are estimated at over 1,000 individuals in the wild, and 6,000–7,000 individuals in captivity.

NASA lunches Apollo 14

It was the eighth manned mission in the United States Apollo program, and the third to land on the Moon. It was the last of the "H missions," targeted landings with two-day stays on the Moon with two lunar EVAs, or moonwalks. The lunar module landed on the Fra Mauro formation - originally the target of the aborted Apollo 13.

First U.S. Satellite Discovers Van Allen Belt

A Van Allen radiation belt is a zone of energetic charged particles, which are captured by and held around a planet by that planet's magnetic field. Existence of such belt was suggested before the Space Age. But the proof came with American satellites Explorer 1 and Explorer 3 and the team of James Van Allen at the University of Iowa.

American electrical engineer and inventor Edwin Howard Armstrong dies

He is best known for developing FM (frequency modulation) system. FM is the encoding of information in a carrier wave by varying the instantaneous frequency of the wave. This contrasts with amplitude modulation, in which the amplitude of the carrier wave varies, while the frequency remains constant.

3M begins marketing Scotch Tape

Scotch Tape is a brand name used for pressure-sensitive tape. The precursor to the current tapes was developed in St. Paul, Minnesota by Richard Drew to seal a then-new transparent material known as cellophane. The tape consists of a pressure-sensitive adhesive coated onto a backing material such as paper, plastic film, cloth, or metal foil.

American chemist and physicist Irving Langmuir is born

His most famous publication is the 1919 article "The Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms and Molecules" in which he outlined his concentric theory of atomic structure. Langmuir also invented the gas-filled incandescent lamp and the hydrogen welding technique. The American Chemical Society journal for surface science called Langmuir in his honour.

American scientist Theodore William Richards is born

He is known for exact determinations of the atomic weights of a large number of the chemical elements. Maybe more important, Richards was first who proved that one element can have more than one atomic weight. This led to the discovery of isotopes. He had two sons and one daughter. Both sons committed suicide.

Condensed milk is invented

There were more inventors of the condensed milk. According to the writings of Marco Polo, 13th century Tatars were able to condense milk. Nicolas Appert condensed milk in France in 1820. But most often is as the inventor of the condensed milk mentioned an American Gail Borden. He was devastated by the deaths of several children during his trip to England, apparently from poor milk obtained from shipboard cows. So he decided to do something with it.

Anniversaries of the (in)famous