Video encyclopedia

Flashback archive

Ankara bombing

A car bomb was used to carry out an attack that targeted buses with civilians. It took place on Atatürk Boulevard, at a point near bus stops. There were 38 victims with the perpetrator, student Seher Çağla Demir, and 127 people injured. Responsibility for the attack has been claimed by the Kurdistan Freedom Hawks.

"Captain America: The Winter Soldier" premieres in Los Angeles

Captain America: The Winter Soldier is superhero movie based on the Marvel Comics character Captain America. The movie became a critical and commercial success, grossing over $714 million worldwide, and making it the seventh highest-grossing film of 2014. It also received an Academy Award nomination for Best Visual Effects.

Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio is elected the new pope

On the second day of the papal enclave, Bergoglio was elected pope and took the papal name Francis. He received congratulations from cardinals while standing. Besides that, he wore a white cassock instead of the usual red one and kept his iron cross in contrast to the gold one used by his predecessors.

Gold prices hit $1,000 per ounce for the first time

The price of gold has risen because of the weak US dollar and turbulent markets continue to lead to speculation of commodities. The climb in gold prices has surprised even the experts. Before 2008, the highest price for gold was $850 per ounce.

Video game Call of Duty: Roads to Victory is released

Call of Duty: Roads to Victory is a World War II first-person shooter. There are 3 campaigns throughout the game: American, Canadian, and the British. In multiplayer, up to 6 players may play wirelessly via ad hoc, in nine different maps. Game types are Deathmatch, Team Deathmatch, Capture the Flag, Hold the Flag, and King of the Hill.

Luciano Pavarotti performs in his last opera at New York Metropolitan Opera's "Tosca"

After more than 4 decades in the stage, Pavarotti set up on his farewell tour at the age of 69. He performed in both old and new locations, finishing with the last performance at the NY Metropolitan Opera. His role of the painter Cavaradossi in Puccini's Tosca was rewarded by a standing ovation from the audience.

Cher is at No. 1 on the US singles chart with "Believe"

"Believe" is the title track from Cher's twenty-second album of the same name. It earned her a place in the Guinness Book of World Records as the oldest female solo artist to top the Billboard Hot 100 chart. Cher also set the record for a solo artist with the longest span of time between number one hits, since "Dark Lady" reached number one in 1974.

German physicist Hans von Ohain dies

He is known as the designer of the first operational jet engine. His HeS3b turbojet engine powered the first experimental jet aircraft, the He178. He had an English competitor, Frank Whittle. Whittle patented the jet engine four years before Ohain. However, Ohain's engine flew two years before Whittle's.

The longest undersea tunnel opens in Japan

The Seikan Tunnel is a 53.85 km (33.46 mi) dual gauge railway tunnel, with a 23.3 km (14.5 mi) long portion under the seabed. It extends beneath the Tsugaru Strait as part of the standard gauge Hokkaido Shinkansen and the narrow gauge Kaikyo Line portion of the Hokkaido Railway Company Tsugaru-Kaikyō Line.

"T.J. Hooker" premieres on US's ABC network

T. J. Hooker is police drama television program starring William Shatner in the title role as a 15-year veteran police sergeant. Hooker was canceled by ABC in the summer of 1985 but the series survived when CBS picked up the show and produced new episodes, and one two-hour TV movie titled "Blood Sport".

EU sets up ERM currency regime, euro's forerunner

The European Exchange Rate Mechanism is based on the concept of fixed currency exchange rate margins, but with exchange rates variable within those margins. Before the introduction of the euro, exchange rates were based on the European Currency Unit whose value was determined as a weighted average of the participating currencies.

The Four Seasons is on the Billboard singles chart with "December 1963 (Oh What A Night)"

"December, 1963 (Oh, What a Night)" is a song from The Four Seasons' album Who Loves You. The song was written by Bob Gaudio and his future wife Judy Parker. It was the Four Seasons' final song, as a group, to reach number one.

Apollo 9 lands

It was the first flight test of the Command/Service Module together with the Lunar Module. The crew performed the first manned flight of the Lunar Module, the first docking, and extraction of a Lunar module and two spacewalks to check out the brand new Apollo spacesuit. It was the first spacesuit without a connection to the spacecraft.

The Beatles release "Lady Madonna" in the UK

Lady Madonna was recorded on 3 and 6 February 1968 before the Beatles left for India. The song was released as a single, backed with "The Inner Light" and it was the last release by the band on Parlophone in the UK and Capitol Records in the US. The single reached number 1 on the UK singles chart.

Beatles' "Eight Days a Week" single goes #1 on Billboard Hot 100

"Eight Days a Week" was written by Paul McCartney and John Lennon based on McCartney's original idea. The song was the band's seventh number 1 single on the Billboard Hot 100, a run of US chart success achieved in just over a year. The track opens with a fade-in, marking the first time that this technique had been used on a pop studio recording.

JFK sets up the Alliance for Progress

In order to establish some sort of economic cooperation between the US and Latin America, Kennedy initiated and promoted the Alliance for Progress. JFK proposed a ten-year plan, aimed at economic and social development, land reforms and the establishment of democratic governments. Economic aid to Latin America nearly tripled.


Floyd Patterson KOs Ingemar Johansson

The fight between Floyd Patterson and Ingemar Johansson ended in the 6th round. Johansson's power in punches was gone. Patterson won and retained the World Heavyweight Championship when the referee stopped the contest after Johansson had been down.

"The Searchers" is released

The Searchers is Technicolor VistaVision Western movie directed by John Ford, and starring John Wayne as a middle-aged Civil War veteran. Since its release, it has come to be considered a masterpiece and one of the greatest and most influential movies ever made.

Failed assassin attempt on Hitler during Smolensk-Rastenburg flight

Henning von Tresckow was a German officer who attempted to assassinate Hitler. Originally, he planned to shoot him at the airport with the other conspirators. This was called off and he instead smuggled a bomb onto a plane, which took Hitler to Prussia. However, low temperatures caused the bomb to fail to detonate.

George Enescu's opera "Œdipe" premieres in Paris

Œdipe is a four-act opera, based on the mythological tale of Oedipus. Enescu started sketching music for it back in 1910, after being inspired by Oedipus story. It was several years later when he managed to complete music and orchestration. Since the premiere, it has generally been considered to be his masterpiece.

Joseph Goebbels becomes Nazi Germany's Minister of Information and Propaganda

Goebbels was a Nazi politician and a man known for his skills in public speaking and deep antisemitism. After the Reichstag elections took place, Hitler appointed Goebbels to the cabinet, making him head of the newly created ministry. He was particularly good at using new technologies –radio and film for propaganda purposes.

Rudolph Friml's musical "Three Musketeers" premieres in NYC

The story of The Three Musketeers was created as a historical novel by Dumas. It was later produced as a musical, with music composed by Friml. Its original version was produced by Florenz Ziegfeld. The premier then took place at the Lyric Theatre on Broadway, where it continued to run for 318 performances.

George Bernard Shaw's "Back to Methuselah V" premieres in NYC

Back to Methuselah consists of a preface, speaking of pervasive discouragement and poverty in Europe after WWI, and 5 plays, each with their own story. The premiere in the US took place at the NY Theatre Guild, at the old Garrick Theatre. They were all written in course of 2 years and published simultaneously.

Trotsky gains control of the Red Army

Trotsky, one of the Bolshevik leaders was among the first who recognized the problems of the Soviet military. He insisted on the formation of a military council that would function as an advisory body. Following this, he resigned on his former post and was appointed as a leader of Army and Navy Affairs, gaining full control of Red Army.

The 23rd US President Benjamin Harrison dies at 67

At the age of 67, Harrison was incorrectly diagnosed with flu. Treatment with steam vapor inhalation did not get his condition better and he slowly faded away. He died roughly a month later, due to pneumonia, at his home in Indianapolis. He was buried at Crown Hill Cemetery, next to his first wife, Caroline.

Earmuffs is patented

Young inventor Chester Greenwood of Farmington, Maine, patented a new device to keep ears warm in frost. He bended a piece of wire and asked his grandmother to saw two beaver fur pads which he attached to the wire. By his mid-twenties, he was selling 50,000 earmuffs yearly. March 13 is celebrated as a National Earmuff Day.

Senate begins US President Andrew Johnson's impeachment trial

The US House of Representatives charged Johnson with violation of the Tenure of Office Act. He removed the former Secretary of Law, Edwin Stanton, and replaced him with Lorenzo Thomas. Following this, Senate started the trial against the Johnson. It was the first impeachment of the President since the creation of the office.

American astronomer Percival Lowell is born

He started the search for the Planet X, today called Pluto. Percival Lowell also made many observations of the Mars surface. He described a system of non-existent water canals on it. He thought that the channels were built by a dying alien civilization in an effort to save itself. The existence of canal-like features was definitively disproved in the 1960s.

"Uncle Sam" made his debut as a cartoon character

Uncle Sam is a common national personification of the American government or the United States. The actual origin is by a legend. Since the early 19th century, Uncle Sam has been a popular symbol of the US government in American culture and a manifestation of patriotic emotion.

British astronomer William Herschel discovers Uranus

He was a musician, not a professional astronomer. But astronomy was his favorite hobby. In 1781 Herschel was looking for double stars and noticed an object appearing as a disk. He originally thought it was a comet. Later Russian Academician Anders Lexell computed the orbit and found it to be planetary.

Anniversaries of famous

born 1985

Emile Hirsch

born 1955

Glenne Headly