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Stephen Hawking dies at 76

He was a British theoretical physicist, cosmologist, author, and Director of Research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology within the University of Cambridge. Hawking had a rare form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. He died peacefully at his home in Cambridge in the morning.

2017

World's oldest golf club votes to admit women as members for 1st time in 273 years

Members of Muirfield voted 80.2% in favour of updating their membership policy and admitting women as members of the club. Before this change, women were only allowed to play the course and visit the club as guests and visitors. Muirfield is one of the golf courses used in rotation for The Open Championship.

President Putin orders Russian troops out of Syria

After several months of the Russian military intervention in Syria, Putin announced the mission to be accomplished. With this statement, he ordered a withdrawal of forces from the country, however, without giving a deadline for its completion. Russian military bases were said to continue operating in the area to monitor the ceasefire.

Amtrak derailment

This is a list of significant accidents and incidents involving Amtrak, which has operated most intercity rail passenger service in the United States since 1971.

Xi Jinping is named as the new President of the People's Republic of China

Xi Jinping rose from the position of General Secretary of the Communist Party to a presidency. He was elected after being voted for by the People's Congress in Beijing. He replaced Jintao, who served two terms. Since then, the limit for the presidency has been abolished, allowing him to become a de facto dictator for unlimited time.

Video game Battlefield Vietnam is released

Battlefield Vietnam is a first-person shooter video game, the second in the Battlefield franchise after Battlefield 1942. The game was developed by the Swedish company Digital Illusions CE and published by Electronic Arts. Battlefield Vietnam takes place during the Vietnam War and features a large variety of maps based on historical settings.

1997

Gymnast Simone Biles is born

Simone Biles is the most decorated American gymnasts. She has won a combined total of nineteen Olympic and World Championship medals. She is the 2016 Olympic individual all-around, vault and floor gold medalist, and balance beam bronze medalist.

Tupac Shakur releases "Me Against The World"

"Me Against the World" is the third studio album by American hip hop artist 2Pac. It was released in March 1995 on the Interscope Records label. Drawing lyrical inspiration from his impending prison sentence, troubles with the police, and poverty, the record is described as 2Pac's most introspective album.

Linux 1.0.0 is released

Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel. Typically, Linux is packaged in a form known as a Linux distribution for both desktop and server use. The defining component of a Linux distribution is the Linux operating system kernel.

Actor Ansel Elgort is born

Ansel Elgort is known for playing Caleb Prior in The Divergent Series, or Augustus Waters in the teen drama The Fault in Our Stars. He also played the title character in the action thriller Baby Driver, for which he received a Golden Globe Award nomination for Best Actor in a Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy.

Mikhail Gorbachev becomes president of the Soviet Congress

Gorbachev was elected as first and the only President of the Soviet Union. He was chosen by Congress of People's deputies, after gaining 59% of their votes. Following this, he chose a council of 15 politicians, thus creating his own political support base, independent of conservatives and radical reformers.

1988

American professional basketball player Stephen Curry is born

Stephen Curry is known for playing for the Golden State Warriors of the NBA. In 2014–15 season, he won the NBA Most Valuable Player Award and led the Warriors to their 1st championship since 1975. He is the son of former NBA player Dell Curry and older brother of current NBA player Seth Curry.

Singer Linda Jones dies at 26

Linda Jones was an American soul singer with a strong gospel-influenced style. Soon after the end of her national tour, she died at her mother's home at the age of 27 while resting between matinee and evening shows at New York City's Apollo Theater in Harlem. She had been a diabetic for most of her life and slipped into a coma while sleeping.

Cliff Richard & The Shadows are at No. 1 on the UK singles chart with "Summer Holiday"

"Summer Holiday" is a song recorded by Cliff Richard and The Shadows, written by rhythm guitarist Bruce Welch and drummer Brian Bennett. It is taken from the film of the same name and was released as the second single from the film in February 1963. It went to #1 in the UK Singles Chart for a total of three weeks.

1960

American professional baseball player Kirby Puckett is born

Kirby Puckett played his entire 12-year MLB career as a center fielder for the Minnesota Twins. He is the Twins' all-time leader in career hits, runs, doubles, and total bases. His batting average was .318. In 2001, he was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame.

Nazi Germany dissolves Republic of Czechoslovakia

The signing of Munich Agreement left Czechoslovakia weak and powerless against the subsequent occupation. German Wehrmacht moved in, seizing the power over the country. It was divided into the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, Slovak State and Carpathian Ukraine, while Poland and Hungary annexed some areas.

American astronaut Eugene Cernan is born

He flew to space three times. His first mission was Gemini 9A, after the unfortunate death of the original crew in a T-38 crash. In 1969 Cernan flew as a lunar module pilot in Apollo 10. He descended from orbit to 15.6 km of the lunar surface. In 1972, Cernan flew as a commander of the last mission to the Moon, Apollo 17.

Composer & singer Quincy Jones Jr. is born

Quincy Jones Jr., also known as "Q", is an American producer, actor, composer and musician. His career spans six decades in the entertainment industry, a record 79 Grammy Award nominations, and 28 Grammys, including a Grammy Legend Award in 1991. In 2013, Q was inducted into the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame.

Actor Michael Caine is born

Sir Michael Caine, CBE, is an English actor, producer, and author. Renowned for his distinctive working-class cockney accent, Caine has appeared in over 115 films and is regarded as a British film icon. He achieved some of his greatest critical success in the 1980s, with Educating Rita, earning him the BAFTA and Golden Globe Award for Best Actor.

U.S. Congress ratifies the Gold Standard, backing dollar with gold

The Gold Standard Act of the United States established gold as the only standard for redeeming paper money, stopping bimetallism. It was signed by President William McKinley. The Gold Standard Act confirmed the United States' commitment to the gold standard by assigning gold a specific dollar value.

Zeppelin is patented

German Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin patents his rigid airship in the United States. His design was so successful that the rigid airships became commonly known as zeppelins. In the Great War, they were used for bombing. After the war, zeppelins served as luxurious airliners, capable even of transatlantic flights.

Cotton gin

American inventor Eli Whitney patented the cotton gin, a machine that quickly and easily separates cotton fibres from their seeds. His device allowed greater productivity than manual cotton separation. It revolutionized the cotton industry in the United States, but also led to the growth of slavery in the American South.

Communist philosopher Karl Marx dies at 64

Marx's health declined in the last months of his life as he suffered from catarrh. The illness caused bronchitis and pleurisy, which killed him. He died in London and was subsequently buried in Highgate Cemetery. He left behind an influential collection of theories on society, economics and politics, known as Marxism.

German physicist Albert Einstein is born

He is known as one of the most creative people in the history of mankind. His most famous contributions to physics are a special and general theory of relativity. They brought a new way of thinking about space, time, and gravitation. His explanation of the photoelectric effect was a pivotal step in the evolution of quantum theory.

Bedřich Smetana's "Vyšehrad" premieres

Vyšehrad is the first poem from Má vlast, which is a set of six symphonic poems. The poem, composed between the end of September and 18 November 1874, describes the Vyšehrad castle in Prague. It is the only piece in the cycle to be mostly completed before Smetana began to go noticeably deaf.

Rossini's "Petite Messe Solennelle" premieres in Paris

Petite messe solennelle was written in 1863, possibly at the request of Count Alexis Pillet-Will for his wife Louise to whom it is dedicated. The extended work is a missa solemnis, but Rossini labeled it, not without irony, petite (little). He scored it originally for twelve singers, four of them soloists, two pianos and harmonium.

Premiere of Verdi's "Macbeth" at the Teatro della Pergola, Florence

Macbeth is an opera in four acts based on William Shakespeare's play of the same name. It was Verdi's tenth opera and was the first Shakespeare play that Verdi adapted for the operatic stage. Macbeth came before the great successes of 1850 to 1853 which propelled him into universal fame.

Anniversaries of famous