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Pioneer 10 mission ends

NASA discontinued the Pioneer 10 mission. The probe was about ten billion kilometers from Earth. Its signal was too weak to be regularly tracked. In 1973 Pioneer 10 visited Jupiter. It was the first of five artificial objects to achieve the escape velocity that will allow them to leave the Solar System.


United States Census Bureau accepted the first UNIVAC I computer. It was the first commercial computer produced in the United States. The designers were J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly, the inventors of another famous early computer, the ENIAC. UNIVAC I machine was later used to predict the result of the 1952 U. S. presidential election.

Italian particle physicist Carlo Rubbia is born

He is known as one of the two discoverers of the W and Z particles, the other one was Simon van der Meer. These particles mediate the weak interaction (or force). it is one of the fundamental forces in nature that causes radioactive decay. Protons and neutrons in the atom nucleus are exchanging W and Z particles, which causes the existence of the weak force.

French philosopher and mathematician René Descartes is born

He is considered a father of modern western philosophy. In mathematics, he invented the cartesian coordinates system and Cartesian or analytic geometry, which uses algebra to describe geometrical objects. This was a step which led to the development of the infinitesimal calculus, the most powerful mathematical tool of all times.

Anniversaries of famous