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Soviet spacecraft Luna 5 crashes on the Moon

Luna 5 was an unmanned Soviet spacecraft built to land on the Moon as part of the Luna programme. It was intended to become the first spacecraft to achieve a soft landing on the Moon, however its retrorockets failed, and the spacecraft began spinning around its main axis due to a problem in a flotation gyroscope in the I-100 guidance system unit. A subsequent attempt to fire the main engine failed because of ground control error, and the engine never fired. As a result of these failures, the soft landing attempt failed, and Luna 5 impacted the Moon.

The Dvorak Simplified Keyboard is patented

American psychologists August Dvorak and his brother-in-law, Dr. William Dealey patented a new keyboard layout. It requires less finger motion and reduces errors compared to the standard QWERTY. The layout, however, failed to replace QWERTY, although it is available in most operating systems.

Alfred Wegener’s body is discovered

The remains of famous geologist and explorer Alfred Wegener were found in Clarinetania, Greenland. Six months earlier, Wegener had left camp during his fourth and final expedition and never returned. His body was reburied on the spot where he had died. Wegener is famous for discovering continental drift.

The Norge makes first ever flight over North Pole

The Norge was a semi-rigid Italian-built airship that carried out the first verified trip of any kind to the North Pole and likely the first verified overflight. It was also the first aircraft to fly over the polar ice cap between Europe and America. The expedition was the brainchild of polar explorer and expedition leader Roald Amundsen.

Statistician and nurse Florence Nightingale is born

Nightingale is known as the founder of the modern science of nursing and a pioneer of medical statistics. She was known as “The Lady with the Lamp” because she made the rounds of wounded soldiers at night during the Crimean war. Nightingale founded the first secular nursing school in the world at St Thomas' Hospital in London.

Anniversaries of famous