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Flashback archive

Space Shuttle Atlantis lands

The mission was part of the joint US-Russian Shuttle-Mir Program. Atlantis delivered a relief crew of two cosmonauts Anatoly Solovyev and Nikolai Budarin to the station and recovered one astronaut, Norman Thagard. It was the first docking of a space shuttle to a space station, and the first time a shuttle crew switched members with the crew of a station.

Space Shuttle Columbia lands

Main mission goal was the preparation for Future flights of the International Space Station (ISS). The crew studied the effects of long-duration spaceflight on the human body in readiness for ISS expeditions. Astronauts carried out experiments similar to those later routinely conducted on the board of the ISS.

Soviet Union launches Phobos 1 to probe Martian moon

Phobos 1 was an unmanned Russian space probe of the Phobos Program launched from the Baikonur launch facility. Its intended mission was to explore Mars and its moons Phobos and Deimos. The mission failed when a computer malfunction caused the end-of-mission order to be transmitted to the spacecraft.

British developmental biologist Ian Wilmut is born

He led the team of scientists that produced a lamb named Dolly, the first mammal cloned from a cell from an adult. The process is called nuclear transfer and involves removing the DNA from an unfertilized egg and injecting the nucleus which contains the DNA to be cloned. Dolly lived her entire life at the Roslin Institute in Midlothian. She had six lambs.

American geneticist Nettie Maria Stevens is born

She discovered that sex is determined by the presence or absence of an X chromosome. Stevens studied beetles who produced two kinds of sperm, one with a large chromosome and one with a small chromosome. Eggs fertilized by the former developed in female offspring and sperm fertilized by the latter developed in male offspring.

Anniversaries of famous

died 1890

Henri Nestlé

died 1983

Herman Kahn