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USSR launches Phobos II for Martian orbit

Phobos 2 was the last space probe designed by the Soviet Union. Phobos 2 operated nominally throughout its cruise and Mars orbital insertion phases, gathering data on the Sun, interplanetary medium, Mars, and Phobos. Phobos 2 investigated Mars surface and atmosphere and returned 37 images of Phobos.

Space Shuttle Challenger launch is aborted

The countdown was halted at T-3 seconds after unwanted shutdown of all three main engines. The problem was caused by a malfunction of the coolant valve. The launch was successfully repeated 17 days later. Challenger carried a Spacelab 2 module. One of the experiments in it was an attempt to make carbonated drink for astronauts (both Cola and Pepsi).

USSR's Sputnik 5 launched with 2 dogs

Belka and Strelka spent a day in space aboard Korabl-Sputnik 2 before safely returning to Earth. They were accompanied by a grey rabbit, 42 mice, two rats, flies and several plants and fungi. All passengers survived. They were the first Earth-born creatures to go into orbit and return alive.

HMS Endeavour anchors in Downs, England

Captained by James Cook she returned from her voyage around the world. Main goals of the voyage were observation of the transit of Venus across the Sun and search of the evidence of the postulated unknown southern land, Terra Australis Incognita. Both goals were fulfilled. Cooks men were first Europeans to reach the east coast of Australia. It was the first of the three great pacific voyages of James Cook.

Anniversaries of the (in)famous