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British chemist Dorothy Hodgkin dies

Hodgkin developed protein crystallography, a method used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of peptides. It is still an essential tool in molecular biology today. Using her method, Hodgkin confirmed the previously theorized structure of penicillin and vitamin B12. She also deciphered the structure of insulin.

Space Shuttle Challenger is launched

The shuttle had to perform Abort to Orbit (ATO) emergency procedure, which means that the intended orbit could not be reached, but the shuttle could stay on a lower, stable orbit. Despite the ATO, rest of the mission went well. One of the experiments conducted on board was preparation of Coca-Cola and Pepsi in space.

British statistician Ronald Fisher dies

He is often described as a genius who almost single-handedly created the foundations for modern statistical science and the single most important figure in 20th century statistics. He combined Mendelian genetics and natural selection. This started the revival of Darwinism in the early 20th century.

U.S. President Eisenhower signs into law NASA

The National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 is the United States federal statute that created NASA. The Act, which followed close on the heels of the Soviet Union's launch of Sputnik, was drafted by the United States House Select Committee on Astronautics and Space Exploration and on July 29, 1958, was signed by President Eisenhower.

British airship R100 departs for Canada

The vessel crossed Atlantic in seventy-eight hours, having covered distance of 5 300 kilometres from Cardington, United Kingdom, to Montreal, Canada. Average speed over ground was 68 kilometres per hour. R100 stayed at Montreal for twelve days with over 100 000 people visiting the airship each day.

Anniversaries of famous