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American cognitive scientist Marvin Minsky is born

His main interest was research of artificial intelligence. He built the first randomly wired neural network learning machine, SNARC. It was one of the first pioneering attempts at the field. Minsky also invented the head-mounted graphical display and the confocal microscope. One of the characters in the movie 2001: A Space Odyssey; Victor Kaminski, was named in his honour.

Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget is born

He is famous for his theory of cognitive development. It describes how human thinking develops from early age to adulthood. As small children, we are not capable of abstract thinking. Piaget described four distinctive stages of human cognition. His theory is still in use in education and many other areas.

Robert Fulton tests his steam-boat

It was a failure. His steam-boat, designed with help of Scottish engineer Henry Bell, sank to the bottom of the river Seine. But Fulton did not give up. Four years later he launched the first commercially successful steamboat in history. It was called The North River Steamboat but was colloquially known as the Clermont.

Anniversaries of the (in)famous

died 1919

Ernst Haeckel

born 1927

Marvin Minsky

died 1942

Edith Stein