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Voyager 1 spacecraft enters interstellar space

After completing its primary mission with the flyby of Saturn, Voyager 1 became the third of five artificial objects to achieve the escape velocity that will allow them to leave the Solar System. Voyager 1 also became the first spacecraft to cross the heliopause and enter the interstellar medium.

Astronaut Neil Armstrong dies

Neil Alden Armstrong was an American astronaut and aeronautical engineer who was the first person to walk on the Moon. Armstrong underwent bypass surgery to relieve blocked coronary arteries. Although he was reportedly recovering well, he developed complications in the hospital and died on August 25, in Cincinnati, Ohio, aged 82.

Linus Torvalds announces his new operation system

He created Linux just for fun. Linux rapidly attracted developers and users who adopted it as the kernel for other free software projects. First kernel was for PC 386. Torvalds had no cross platform intentions. Today, Linux is dominant system for servers and supercomputers. Android operating system is also based on Linux.

Voyager 2 approaches Saturn

The probe remotely measured properties of Saturn's upper atmosphere. At the uppermost pressure levels, Saturn's temperature was 70 kelvins. At the deepest levels measured pressure levels the temperature increased to 143 kelvins. The north pole was found to be 10 kelvins cooler, although this may be seasonal.

American biologist Alfred Kinsey dies

He was entomologist by training but he is best known for his research of human sexuality. Kinsey is considered to one of the founders of sexology. He wrote two very influential books: Sexual Behavior in the Human Male (1948) and Sexual Behavior in the Human Female (1953). Kinsey also invented a heterosexual-homosexual rating scale.

British scientist Michael Faraday dies

He made many contributions to the study of electricity. The most important is probably his discovery of electromagnetic induction. He also found that ray of light can be influenced by magnetism and therefore there is a link between these two phenomena. Faraday’s research made possible practical use of electricity in technology.

Galileo Galilei demonstrates his first telescope

Galileo demonstrated one of his early telescopes, with a magnification of about 8 or 9, to Venetian lawmakers. His telescopes were also a profitable sideline for Galileo, who sold them to merchants who found them useful both at sea and as items of trade.

Anniversaries of the (in)famous