Video encyclopedia

Flashback calendar

One Direction break

One Direction played the final gig of their world tour before their self-proclaimed extended break. After more than 80 shows across 20 countries, their On The Road tour came to an end in Sheffield. From this point on, the band only have a few one-off appearances at music awards shows before they go their separate ways in March 2016.

Hugh Jackman returns to Broadway

Jackman returned to Broadway in the new play, The River, which ran at the Circle in the Square Theatre to February 2015. Theater critics expressed frustration in London that so few people got to see The River in its limited run, for which only same-day tickets were available.

Yen reaches its all-time high versus USD

The strong yen undermined revival for the nation's exporters, which make much of Japan's economic growth, by making their products less competitive in foreign markets. As a result, the Japanese government weakened the yen.

"The Walking Dead" first airs on the AMC

The Walking Dead is post-apocalyptic horror television series. The episode "Days Gone Bye" was written by Frank Darabont. The premiere was massively promoted and achieved a viewership of 5.35 million.

GTA: Vice City Stories is released

Vice City Stories is an action-adventure video game developed in a collaboration between Rockstar Leeds and Rockstar North, and published by Rockstar Games. The game is the tenth instalment in the Grand Theft Auto series and the sixth and last game in the 3D universe. It is a prequel to Grand Theft Auto: Vice City and the successor to previous PSP release, Grand Theft Auto: Liberty City Stories.

Pharaoh is released

Pharaoh is an isometric city-building game that was created by Impressions Games and published by Sierra Studios, for Microsoft Windows. Using the same game engine and principles of Caesar III, it is the 1st such game in Sierra's City Building series to focus on another civilization of ancients times, with players overseeing construction and management of cities and settlements in Ancient Egypt.

Chart history is made

When the UK Top 5 singles chart was made up entirely of new entries. Alanis Moríssette went in at No.5 (´Thank U´), Culture Club at No.4 (´I Just Wanna Be Loved´), U2 at No.3 (´Sweetest Thing´), George Michael at No.2 (´Outside´) and Cher with 'Believe' at No.1. It made Cher (who was 52) the first female artist to have a No.1 single over the age of 50

Age of Empires: The Rise of Rome is released

Age of Empires: The Rise of Rome is an expansion pack for the real-time strategy game Age of Empires. It is based on the rise of the Roman Empire, and adds the Roman Empire and 3 other playable civilizations to Age of Empires.

Tomb Raider II is released

Tomb Raider II is an action-adventure video game, part of the Tomb Raider series and the sequel to the video game Tomb Raider. It was developed by Core Design and published by Eidos Interactive. The game sold over 8 million copies worldwide as of 2003, making it one of the best-selling games released up to that point and the second best selling of the franchise.

Guitarist Slash announces he was no longer in Guns N' Roses

With the band's failure to collaborate resulting in no album being recorded, Slash announced that he was no longer a part of Guns N' Roses. Slash stated at the time "Axl and I have not been capable of seeing eye to eye on Guns N' Roses for some time. We tried to collaborate, but at this point, I'm no longer in the band."

Rapper Tupac Shakur charged with aggravated assault

Tupac Shakur was riding in a car which passed and almost struck two drunk off-duty police officers, who begun to argue with the driver. That led to Shakur shooting both officers. Later, however, prosecutors dropped all charges against both parties.

Boyz II Men are at #1 on the UK and US singles chart

The single was recorded by American R&B group Boyz II Men for the Boomerang soundtrack. It was written and produced by Kenneth "Babyface" Edmonds, L.A. Reid and Daryl Simmons. In the US, "End of the Road" spent a then record-breaking 13 weeks at number 1 on the US Billboard Hot 100, Internationally, "End of the Road" reached number 1 in Australia, UK and the Hot 100 Eurochart.

Christians admit mistake

The Vatican released statement that Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei was right in saying that Earth orbits the Sun. In 1633 the church forced Galileo to repel under the threat of torture and sentenced him to home arrest until death. Galileo used this arrest to write one of his most famous books, Two New Sciences.

Indira Gandhi is assassinated in New Delhi

Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi was assassinated at 9:20 a.m. on 31 October 1984 at her residence in Safdarjung Road, New Delhi. She was killed by her bodyguards Satwant Singh and Beant Singh in the aftermath of Operation Blue Star, the Indian Army's June 1984 assault on the Golden Temple in Amritsar which left the Sikh temple heavily damaged.


Czech ice hockey player Tomáš Plekanec is born

Tomáš Plekanec began his carrier with HC Kladno of the Czech Extraliga. Later, he was selected 71st overall by the Montreal Canadiens in the 2001 NHL Entry Daft. He is married to Czech singer Lucie Vondráčková, who he has two children with.

Led Zeppelin start a four week run at #1 on the US album chart

Led Zeppelin III is the eponymous 3rd studio album by the English rock band Led Zeppelin. It showed a progression from straightforward rock towards folk and acoustic music. The album was one of the most anticipated of 1970. It was an immediate commercial success upon release and topped the UK and US charts.

President Johnson announces bombing halt of North Vietnam

Five days before the presidential election, President Lyndon Johnson ordered a total halt to the bombing of North Vietnam.

American rapper Vanilla Ice was born

Robert Matthew Van Winkle, known professionally as Vanilla Ice, is an American rapper, actor, and television host. Born in South Dallas, and raised in Texas and South Florida, Ice released his debut album, Hooked, in 1989 on Ichiban Records. Ice's 1990 single "Ice Ice Baby" was the first hip hop single to top the Billboard charts.

The Supremes start a four week run at #1 on the US singles chart

Baby Love is a song recorded by the American music group the Supremes in 1964 for their 2nd studio album titled Where Did Our Love Go. It was written and produced by Motown's main production team Holland–Dozier–Holland. Baby Love topped the Billboard pop singles chart in the US and in the UK pop singles chart concurrently.


Holland and AC Milan legend Marco Van Basten is born

Marcel "Marco" van Basten is a Dutch football manager and former professional football player, who played for Ajax and A.C. Milan, as well as the Netherlands national team, as a forward. He is regarded as one of the greatest strikers in the history of the sport. He scored 300 goals in a high-profile career, but played his last match in 1993 at age 28 due to an injury.

Johnny Marr, the guitar in The Smiths and in Electronic, is born

Johnny Marr is an English musician, songwriter and singer, best known as the guitarist and – with Morrissey – co-songwriter of the Smiths, who were active from 1982 to 1987. Voted the 4th best guitarist of the last 30 years in a poll conducted by the BBC in 2010, Phil Alexander, editor-in-chief of Mojo, has described Marr as "arguably Britain's last great guitar stylist".

You'll Never Walk Alone is #1 on the UK singles chart

In the UK, the song's most successful cover was released by the Liverpudlian Merseybeat group Gerry and the Pacemakers, peaking at number 1 on the UK singles chart for 4 consecutive weeks. Sung by Liverpool fans in 1963, the song quickly became the anthem of Liverpool F.C. and is sung by its supporters moments before the start of each home game.

New Zealand director Peter Jackson is born

Sir Peter Robert Jackson is a New Zealand film director, screenwriter and film producer. He was born in Wellington and raised at the nearby coastal town of Pukerua Bay. His parents—Joan, a factory worker and housewife, and William "Bill" Jackson, a wages clerk—were emigrants from England. Bill Jackson was a veteran of the Siege of Malta in WW II.

Hurricane Hattie strikes Belize killing more than 300 people

Hurricane Hattie came from an area of low pressure that turned into a tropical storm over the southwestern Caribbean Sea. The storm quickly became a hurricane with maximum sustained winds of 160 mph. Hattie totally killed 319 people, most of them in Belize and some in Guatemala and Honduras.

Irish musician and actor Larry Mullen Jr. is born

Laurence Joseph Mullen Jr. is an Irish musician and actor, best known as the drummer and co-founder of the rock band U2. Mullen's distinctive drumming style developed from his playing martial beats in a childhood marching band, the Artane Boys Band. Some of his most notable contributions to the U2 catalog include Sunday Bloody Sunday, Pride and Where the Streets Have No Name.

Johnnie Johnson hires 26 year old Chuck Berry as a guitarist

With pianist Johnnie Johnson, Berry formed a band. After meeting blues legend Muddy Waters, Berry was introduced to Chess Records founder Leonard Chess. Berry brought along a song based on the country tune “Ida Red.” With a new title and lyrics – and an immediately grabby, grinding opening guitar lick — the song was transformed into “Maybellene.”


Earl Lloyd becomes the 1st black player in the NBA

Earl Lloyd was the 1st black person to play in an NBA game. It was a game between the Washington Capitols and the Rochester Royals. Three more African Americans played in the same season. Lloyd experienced some issues with racism, he was refused service multiple times and was spit on by a fan.

Battle of Britain ends in defeat for Nazi Germany

Battle of Britain was a military campaign fought entirely by air forces. Royal Air Force defended the UK against the German Air Force attacks.

The World Savings Day established in Italy

The World Savings Day was established during the 1st International Savings Bank Congress in Milano. The World Savings Day is usually held on October 31 and the idea is for the people to transfer their savings into their account.

Benito Mussolini is made Prime Minister of Italy

Benito Mussolini came in power after the March on Rome, which resulted in the resignation of liberal Prime Minister Luigi Facta and the National Fascist Party taking control over the Kingdom of Italy. Mussolini was supported even by the king Victor Emmanuel III, who thought he would restore law and order in the country.

Mascagni's opera "L'amico Fritz" premieres at the Teatro Costanzi

L'amico Fritz is an opera in 3 acts by Pietro Mascagni, from a libretto by P. Suardon, based on the French novel L'ami Fritz by Émile Erckmann and Pierre-Alexandre Chatrian. While the opera enjoyed some success in its day and is probably Mascagni's most famous work after Cavalleria Rusticana. The opera was first performed in Rome at the Teatro Costanzi.

Dunlop’s great idea

Scottish veterinary surgeon John Dunlop patented his pneumatic tires. He had a son whom a doctor recommended to ride a tricycle. Dunlop did not want his son to ride on bumping bare metal wheels. So he put a rubber tube on it. Unbeknown to Dunlop, the same device was already patented by Robert William Thomson.

Chemical magnate dies

French-American chemist Éleuthère Irénée du Pont died. He was born in France and studied under father of modern chemistry Antoine Lavoisier, then chief of the royal gunpowder work. E. I. du Pont became Lavoisier’s assistant. Aster the French revolution he emigrated to the U. S. and started new gunpowder business. It evolved in one of the largest chemical concerns of all time.

True light bulb inventor is born

British physicist Joseph Swan was born. He is not very famous, although he should be. He invented incandescent light bulb. His invention is, however, usually attributed to Thomas Edison. Swan’s lamp was less practical than Edison’s. On the other hand, Swan used cellulose as a lamp core which was superior to Edison’s bamboo.

Anniversaries of the (in)famous

born 1951

Nick Saban

died 1984

Indira Gandhi

born 1950

John Candy